The programme recognizes that Ecosystems in Uganda are increasingly being threatened by various human activities. The ecosystem loss is attributed to agriculture, mineral exploitation, oil and gas development, as well as expanding power generation, industries, and road networks.

The effect of development is certainly damaging on species and ecosystems, a much greater threat remains in the fact that Uganda has one of the youngest populations in the world, which continues to increase rapidly each year.

Over the last century, Uganda’s forest cover declined by more than 75%. In 2012, fish exports dropped to 26, 574 tons from 32.855 tons in 2006 – so did the revenue from USD136.8million to USD56.8 million. Deforestation and land degradation are estimated to have cost Uganda 17% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). 

The progressive, systematic and induced unsustainable management of fragile ecosystems has caused declining resource productivity and resilience, resource scarcities, inequitable access that breeds conflicts, population displacements and worsen human vulnerability. 

As such, ecosystem restoration and management is key for enhancing land productivity, reducing poverty and enhancing the quality of life or resource-dependent farmers, pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and fisher-folk.